Jobseeker’s Guide to Salary Negotiation

2829700156_67fb2e3a74_oThere are generally two opportunities to influence how much money you make: when you get a new job and when you ask for a raise in an existing job. Money is usually the most sensitive issue in the hiring process. Discussing compensation often causes anxiety for both employee and employer. Negotiating an initial salary can be stressful; it doesn’t get any easier once you have the job and want a raise.

Confidence is important in negotiations. You’ve probably heard the phrase, “Negotiate from a position of strength.” Strength comes from confidence. Confidence comes from being prepared (doing your homework), reaching the right decision-maker, having the right timing, and knowing what you want out of the negotiation. One of the best things you can do to boost your confidence is to practice (role play) your salary negotiation with someone. Ideally, practice with someone who has negotiation experience — for example, a friend or neighbor who is in sales, or who is a lawyer. This guide will help you with the rest: research, timing, and assessing your strengths so you can justify a higher starting salary or a raise.

According to a 2013 CareerBuilder survey, 45% of employers are willing — and expect — to negotiate salaries, but only half of workers do, potentially missing out on thousands of dollars.

Negotiating a Salary at a New Job

Money may seem like the biggest factor in accepting a job, but it can often cloud your decision-making process. Don’t accept a job that you’re not enthusiastic about simply because the starting salary is a few thousand dollars higher than what you’re currently making. It’s probably more important to find a job that lets you do something you enjoy. Ask yourself whether the position presents a career path with upward movement and long-range income potential.

If you’re getting a job offer — and salary discussions usually don’t happen unless you’re a serious candidate — negotiation is an expected part of the process.

What’s the worst that can happen? You may not get all that you’re asking for. You may only get some — but that’s more than you started with. It’s rare (extremely rare!) that a job offer would be rescinded simply because you asked for more money.

Have a positive attitude about salary negotiations. Negotiation is basically a process that could benefit both parties. Understand your needs and those of the company. It is possible to reach a win/win solution. Don’t be aggressive or demanding when negotiating salary or a raise. Keep your tone friendly and civil.

Negotiating a higher starting offer initially can make a big difference in your pay over the long-term. In addition to getting more cash up front, your annual raises will also be based off a higher starting salary.

Let’s say you accept an offer of $30,000 for an entry-level job and are given annual pay increases of 3 percent. After five years, you’ll be making $33,765. On the other hand, if you negotiate a starting pay of $33,000 (a 10 percent increase), after five years, your pay will be $37,142. The individual who started at $30,000 made $159,274 during those five years; the person who negotiated a starting salary of $33,000 made $175,191 — a difference of $15,917.

Do Your Homework

When you’re buying any major item (house, car, big screen television), it’s important to do your homework and find out the value of the item. It’s also important to do your homework when negotiating a salary or a raise.

Research your market value — what you’re worth — for your position, level of experience, and industry. In addition to online salary sites, you can get information from your professional or trade association.

Research the prospective employer and its salary structure. If possible, talk to current or former employees. Alumni of your college or university who hold similar positions or who are employed by the same company may provide you with useful information. (LinkedIn can be a good source of contacts for this.)

One of the easiest ways to find out salary information is online. There are websites that offer solid salary information, including:

Bureau of Labor and Statistics (wage data by area and occupation)

http://www.bls.gov/bls/blswage.htm

Occupational Outlook Handbook (earnings)

http://www.bls.gov/oco/

CareerOneStop Salary and Benefits Information

http://www.careeronestop.org/toolkit/Wages/wages.aspx

U.S. Office of Personnel Management Salaries & Wages (federal salary information)

http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/

Salary.com (offers free data and personalized salary reports for a fee)

http://salary.com/

Payscale.com (requires you to contribute data in order to receive information)

http://www.payscale.com/

Glassdoor.com (requires you to contribute data in order to receive information)

http://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/index.htm

The Riley Guide Salary Guides & Guidance (salary info and additional research tools)

http://www.rileyguide.com/salguides.html

SalaryExpert.com (neat feature: allows you to search jobs by pay range)

http://www.salaryexpert.com/

JobSmart Salary Surveys (site can be hard to navigate, but offers links to industry-specific salary surveys)

http://jobstar.org/tools/salary/index.php

National Association of College and Employers

(annual summary of employment outlook and starting salaries for new graduates)

http://www.naceweb.org/salary-resources/index.aspx

Robert Half International Salary Guides (accounting, finance, financial services, technology, legal, creative positions, administrative jobs)

http://www.rhi.com/salaryguides

You can also do a Google search for “average salary for (job title).” This can sometimes lead you to more specific salary data for a profession.

When using sites like Payscale.com and Salary.com, compare job responsibilities, not job titles. A job title can mean different things at different companies.

If you are relocating, part of your research should include cost-of-living adjustments. You can use the CNN Money Calculator (http://money.cnn.com/calculator/pf/cost-of-living/) to assess differences between cities.

It can also help to understand what a prospective employer considers when offering a salary. The employer may evaluate:

  • the level of the job within the organization
  • the scarcity of the skills and experience needed for the job in the job market
  • the career progression and experience of the individual selected
  • the fair market value of the job you are filling
  • the salary range for the job within your organization
  • the salary range for the job within your geographic area
  • the existing economic conditions within your job market
  • the existing economic conditions within your industry
  • company-specific factors that might affect the given salary, such as comparative jobs, company culture, pay philosophy, and promotion practices.

How to Handle a Request for Salary on Application Forms

You may be asked salary information on an application form — or be faced with a “current salary” or “desired salary” field on an online application. The answer you provide may be used in the screening process — answer too high and you may not be considered for the position at all. This number will also likely come into play at the interview/offer stage — it can establish the range for the offer the company makes.

On a paper application form — or if the online form allows you to type in whatever you want — you can write “Negotiable.” This gives you the opportunity to discuss your salary history and expectations later.

If it’s not a required field on an online form, leave it blank. If the “desired salary” field requires you to enter a figure, however, you have a couple of options:

  • Enter $0, $1, or $10 (the minimum number you can) — it will be clear you’re not answering the questions (most employers will know you aren’t offering to work for free).
  • Enter $999,999 (or the highest number you can). Like answering $0, this shows you are purposely avoiding the question.
  • If you can, enter a range — some online forms will allow you to enter two numbers.
  • You can enter your desired salary — but know that it may lead to you being screened out (if it’s too high), or being offered a lower salary in the interview (if it’s too low).

Timing the Salary Discussion in an Interview

Timing is critical in salary negotiations. In negotiating an initial salary for a job, you (the jobseeker) do not want to be the one to bring it up in an interview. Let the hiring manager be the first to discuss salary. Don’t bring up money until the interviewer brings up money, if you can help it. Remember, they want you to accept the job. The company has put a lot of time and effort into finding the right candidate — you!

If you name a number first, you could be offering a figure below the range the company is prepared to offer — losing money in the process. You could also take yourself out of contention if what you’re asking for is higher than what the company can offer.

The issue of money will likely come up in the interview when the company is serious about you as a candidate. Don’t negotiate salary or benefits until you’ve been offered the job. You certainly do not want to price yourself out of the running, nor do you want to settle for less than you are worth. Employers often have a salary range available for positions, leaving them room to negotiate.

At some point, you will likely be asked for your salary history — or what you were paid in your current/most recent position so they can make an offer close to your current compensation. The company may ask for your salary history so that they can be sure they’re not wasting time on people who they can’t afford to hire. Do not be deceptive about your current salary. Employers can verify your compensation when conducting reference checks or they may ask you to provide a W-2 form from your current or previous job. Dishonesty, especially if discovered after an offer is made, may be cause for the offer to be rescinded.

You may also be asked directly about your desired salary.

If you’re pressed about your desired salary and you feel you must name a figure, give a salary range instead of your most recent salary. And don’t forget to add, “…that doesn’t include the value of insurance or other benefits.” The bottom of your salary range should be the minimum you’re willing to accept. The top of the range will be dictated by your salary research and your unique qualifications.

Naming a salary range gives you a chance to find a figure that is also in the range the company has in mind. In fact, many companies base their offers on sliding salary scales.

Here are a few strategies for success when an interviewer asks about your compensation requirements:

  • “What was the compensation package for the individual previously in this position?” and then base your answer on that information;
  • “What range did you have in mind?” where your answer is always that the high end of the range is what you were considering; or
  • “What are you willing to pay an individual in this position with this level of responsibility?” and use that information to answer the question.

Suppose you have given one of the above answers and your interviewer responds with virtually no information. He/she again inquires as to your compensation requirements. You must now respond with specific information such as (1) “My requirements are in the $50,000 to $70,000 range”; or (2) “My compensation in my last position was $65,000 and I am seeking to increase that by a minimum of 10%”; or (3) “I am interested in a compensation package including salary, equity interest, and stock options that will total approximately $80,000.”

The more information you can get from the interviewer, the more educated and appropriate your response can be.

If asked for your salary requirements, first ask for the pay range for the position. Then, you can respond with, “That’s in the range I was expecting. Once I better understand the requirements of the position and the value I can bring to the company, we can discuss the specific compensation.”

Don’t tip your hand. If the interviewer asks you to supply a dollar amount that would satisfy you, don’t give a concrete number for which you’re willing to settle. You don’t want to take yourself out of the running by naming a figure that is absurdly optimistic, and you don’t want to risk naming a figure that is lower than what the company is ready to offer. Instead of naming a price, say something like, “Based on my experience and skills, and the demands of the position, I’d expect to earn an appropriate figure. Can you give me some idea what kind of range you have in mind?”

Know What You Want

You don’t have to accept the first salary offer you’re given.

Jack Chapman, author of “Negotiating Your Salary: How to Make $1000 a Minute” suggests responding with a “hmmm” instead of “okay” when presented with a salary offer. (Okay constitutes acceptance; “hmmm” gives you room to negotiate.)

You can also ask if the company’s offer is flexible. The “worst case scenario” might be that the interviewer tells you your salary is set by company policy and there is no room to negotiate.

You should also consider the full value of the compensation package — not just the salary.

Benefits can make a huge difference in your compensation package, so don’t overlook them! Perhaps the most important benefit to consider is health insurance. If the company pays only a percentage of these costs, make certain that you can afford to pay the difference out of your own pocket.

Non-cash benefits can add 30 to 40 percent to your total compensation package.

Other benefits and negotiable items may include:

  • Health insurance
  • Vacation and sick/personal time
  • Retirement plans
  • Bonuses and/or incentives (including a signing bonus and profit-sharing plans)
  • Tuition reimbursement
  • Stock options
  • Flexible schedule (telecommuting)
  • Other insurance (dental, life, accidental death, disability insurance)
  • Company-supplied equipment (laptop, cell phone)
  • Company car (or car allowance or other transportation expenses)
  • Health club membership
  • Association dues
  • Relocation expenses
  • Discount on company products
  • Expense account
  • Child care expense reimbursement
  • Salary reviews (negotiating more frequent reviews and/or raises based on merit or performance vs. cost-of-living)
  • Space (i.e., an office with a window)
  • Overtime policies (if it’s available, and you want to work it, to increase your pay)
  • Severance package

Know what is most important to you. When asked if they’d like more money or a non-cash option like flexible scheduling or time off work, many employees will choose the extra time. If that appeals to you, keep that in mind when negotiating.

In your current position, if a raise isn’t available, ask about a bonus instead. Or ask for a non-cash benefit — maybe an extra vacation day, or flexibility in your work schedule (like being able to leave early on Fridays). Or you may want to come in early to the office but leave earlier in the afternoon. Maybe they’ll let you telecommute (work from home) one day a week.

Consider alternative compensation packages. Work is not just about a paycheck. If you are willing to invest your energy, talent, and expertise in a company, don’t you want something more than a paycheck?

You may also ask for additional responsibility — for example, a chance to lead projects or a task force. This gives you the opportunity to position yourself for a raise in the future, as higher-level responsibilities merit higher pay.

Remember, the point of your job search is finding a job that you will be happy with, that you’ll grow with, and that will allow you to be yourself. If your salary isn’t the one you dreamed about, but the job offers opportunity for learning and/or growth, think about the possibility of taking the position with the goal of making yourself invaluable to the organization … or positioning yourself for your next job search. On the other hand, if what the company offers isn’t what you need, you don’t have to take the job. There are other opportunities out there.

The most important thing to remember about salary negotiations is that most salaries are negotiable. That doesn’t mean you name a figure and the company either matches it or not. It means you’re ready to listen to what the interviewer has to offer and give it consideration. Just remember to have realistic expectations and realize that you may not get everything you want.